Climate Change, Summit ONU (New York) e G20 (Pittsburgh) | 22-25 settembre 2009

Nei giorni scorsi si sono svolti due importanti Summit internazionali che hanno affrontato, tra l’altro, il tema delle criticità ambientali.


Nel corso del Summit sono stati effettuati interventi estremamente significativi che qui di seguito riepiloghiamo citando i passaggi, a nostro avviso, più significativi.


i)     The threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing.
ii)    Our generation’s response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to meet it – boldly, swiftly, and together – we risk consigning future generations to an irreversible catastrophe.
iii)  John F. Kennedy once observed that “Our problems are man-made, therefore they may be solved by man”.
iv)   We understand the gravity of the climate threat. We are determined to act. And we will meet our responsibility to future generations.
v)    It is work that will not be easy. As we head towards Copenhagen, there should be no illusions that the hardest part of our journey is in front of us (…). Unease is no excuse for inaction. And we must not allow the perfect to become the enemy of progress. Each of us must do what we can when we can to grow our economies without endangering our planet – and we must all do it together. We must seize the opportunity to make Copenhagen a significant step forward in the global fight against climate change.
vi)   But those rapidly growing developing nations that will produce nearly all the growth in global carbon emissions in the decades ahead must do their part, as well. Some of these nations have already made great strides with the development and deployment of clean energy. Still, they need to commit to strong measures at home and agree to stand behind those commitments just as the developed nations must stand behind their own. We cannot meet this challenge unless all the largest emitters of greenhouse gas pollution act together. There’s no other way.
vii) We must also energize our efforts to put other developing nations – especially the poorest and most vulnerable – on a path to sustained growth. These nations do not have the same resources to combat climate change as countries like the United States or China do, but they have the most immediate stake in a solution (…) we have a responsibility to provide the financial and technical assistance needed to help these nations adapt to the impacts of climate change and pursue low-carbon development.
viii)   What we are seeking, after all, is not simply an agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. We seek an agreement that will allow all nations to grow and raise living standards without endangering the planet.
ix)   By developing and disseminating clean technology and sharing our know-how, we can help developing nations leap-frog dirty energy technologies and reduce dangerous emissions.
x)    The good news is that after too many years of inaction and denial, there’s finally widespread recognition of the urgency of the challenge before us. We know what needs to be done. We know that our planet’s future depends on a global commitment to permanently reduce greenhouse gas pollution. We know that if we put the right rules and incentives in place, we will unleash the creative power of our best scientist and engineers and entrepreneurs to build a better world.


i)     Global climate change has a profound impact on the existence and development of mankind, and is a major challenge facing all countries.
ii)All countries have deepened their understanding, built consensus and stepped forward to meet the challenge. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol have now been universally recognized as the primary channel to address climate change.
iii)The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities has been established as the basis for closer international cooperation. And sustainable development and harmony between man and nature has become the common goal of all parties.
iv)At stake in the fight against climate change are the common interests of the entire world, and the development interests and people’s well-being of the vast number of developing nations in particular.
v)It is imperative to give full consideration to the development stage and basic needs of developing countries in addressing climate change. Both their historical and per capita emissions are low. Due to their low development level and shortage of capital and technology, developing countries have limited capability and means to deal with climate change. (…) For developing countries, the top priority now is to grow economy, eradicate poverty and improve livelihood.

vi)To address climate change and achieve sustainable development is an urgent and long-term task for all of us. It bears on the living environment of mankind and the development prospects of all countries, and calls for the unremitting efforts of the whole world.
vii) The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities embodies the consensus of the international community. Adherence to this principle is critical to keeping international cooperation on climate change on the right track.
viii)Both developed and developing countries should take active steps to tackle climate change. We should act in keeping with the provisions of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol (…). Developed countries should fulfill the task of emission reduction set in the Kyoto Protocol, continue to undertake substantial mid-term quantified emission reduction targets, and support developing countries in countering climate change. Developing countries should, in the light of their national conditions and with the financial and technological support of developed countries, work hard to adapt to climate change and do  their best to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (…). Developed countries should support developing countries in tackling climate change. This is not only their responsibility, but also serves their long-term interest.
ix)China will further integrate actions on climate change into its economic and social development plan.
x)I am convinced that as long as we adopt a responsible attitude toward our respective countries and mankind as a whole, proceed from the present reality while looking ahead to the future, uphold the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol as the primary channel, stay committed to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and the mandate of the Bali Roadmap, we will makethe Copenhagen Conference a new milestone in the international cooperation on climate change. China stands ready to join hands with all countries to build an even better future for the generations to come.


i)     Climate change affects the entire globe and requires long-term and international efforts. Thus, it is imperative for all countries to address the issue under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”.
ii)    Based on the discussions in the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I believe that the developed countries need to take the lead in emissions reduction efforts. It is my view that Japan should positively commit itself to setting a long-term reduction target. For its mid-term goal, Japan will aim to reduce its emissions by 25% by 2020, if compared to the 1990 level, consistent with what the science calls for in order to halt global warming.
iii)  It is imperative to establish a fair and effective international framework in which all major economies participate. The commitment of Japan to the world is premised on agreement on ambitious targets by all the major economies.
iv)   Public financial assistance and technology transfer to developing countries are critically important. However, they alone will not meet the financial needs of developing countries. I therefore intend to work with world leaders on creating a mechanism that not only ensures the effective use of public funds but also facilitates the flow of private investments.
v)    Japan proposes to establish a framework to promote the transfer of low-carbon technologies which ensures the protection of intellectual property rights.
vi)   I wish to make a strong appeal to you to work together, so that we will be able to make significant achievements at COP 15 in December and that the people of the world will be able to say that their leaders made crucial decisions for the sake of future generations.


i)     Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise. We will soon reach critical thresholds. Consequences that we cannot reverse.
ii)    The world’s leading scientists warn that we have less than ten years to avoid the worst-case scenarios projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
iii)  Indeed those worst-case scenarios are becoming ever more likely. We must halt the rise in global emissions.
iv)   Earlier this month I was in the Artic. I was alarmed by the rapid pace of change. The Artic could be nearly ice-free by 2030. The consequences will be felt by people on every continent.
v)    Climate change is the pre-eminent geopolitical and economic issue of the 21st century. It rewrites the global equation for development, peace  and prosperity. It will increase pressure on water, food and land (…) reverse years of development gains (…) exacerbate poverty (…) destabilize fragile states and topple governments.

vi)   Some say tackling climate change is too expensive. They are wrong. The opposite is true. We will pay an unacceptable price if we do not act now.
vii) The climate negotiations are proceeding too slow. The world’s glaciers are now melting faster than human progress to protect them – and us (…). Instead of demanding concessions from others, let us ask how we can contribute to the greater good. A successful deal in Copenhagen will mean more prosperity, more security, more equity. It will expand the pie for all.
viii)  Let us be clear about the signposts for success at Copenhagen and beyond. First, a successful deal must involve all countries working toward a common, long-term goal to limit global temperature rise to safe levels consistent with science. It will include ambitious emission reduction targets from industrialized countries by 2020. It will include actions by developing countries to limit the growth of their emissions while they grow sustainably. They will need substantial financial and technological support to achieve this. It will also address all major sources of greenhouse gases, including deforestation and emissions from shipping and aviation.
ix)   A deal must make available the full range of public and private resources, so developing countries can pursue low-emissions growth, as well as adapt. It must provide a framework that will unlock private investment, including through the carbon markets. (…) a successful deal must include an equitable global governance structure that addresses the needs of developing countries.
x)    Copenhagen offers a new path. It can catalyze a global economy based on low-emissions growth that can strengthen sustainable development and lift billions out of poverty.
xi)   Success in Copenhagen will have positive ripple effects for global cooperation on trade, energy, security and health.

Al termine di lavori del G20 riunitosi a Pittsburgh il 24-25 settembre 2009 è stato diffuso il “Leaders Statement” che, con riferimento alle tematiche ambientali, contiene alcune importanti dichiarazioni. Riportiamo nel seguito le più significative:

i)     We will spare no effort to reach agreement in Copenhagen through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.
ii)    Increasing clean and renewable energy supplies, improving energy efficiency, and promoting conservation are critical steps to protect our environment, promote sustainable growth and address the threat of climate change. Accelerated adoption of economically sound clean and renewable energy technology and energy efficiency measures diversifies our energy supplies and strengthens our energy security.
iii)  We commit to:
–      Stimulate investment in clean energy, renewables, and energy efficiency and provide financial and technical support for such projects in developing countries.
–     Take steps to facilitate the diffusion or transfer of clean energy technology including by conducting joint research and building capacity. The reduction or elimination of barriers to trade and investment in this area are being discussed and should be pursued on a voluntary basis and in appropriate fora.
iv)   As leaders of the world’s major economies, we are working for a resilient, sustainable, and green recovery. We underscore anew our resolve to take strong action to address the threat of dangerous climate change. We reaffirm the objective, provisions, and principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC ), including common but differentiated responsibilities. We note the principles endorsed by Leaders at Major Economies Forum in L’Aquila, Italy. We will intensify our efforts, in cooperation with other parties, to reach agreement in Copenhagen through the UNFCCC negotiation.